How to Run LLMs in a Docker Container

LLM stands for Large Language Model and is a large-scale AI model that has been trained with an extensive amount of text and code. Beside the well known and widespread Chat GPT, today there are many powerful Open Source alternatives available. The advantage of an Open Source LLM is that you can use such a model in your own application within your own environment. There is no dependency on an external service provider that can raise prices, shut down services, or remove models.

But the question that inevitably arises is: Where to start? At least that’s the question I asked myself. After some research I found out that it isn’t such difficulty as it sounds to run a local LLM.

First of all there is a place called Hugging Face providing a kind of market place for all kinds of AI models. After you have registers yourself on the page you can search and download all kinds of different Models. Of course each model is different and addresses different needs and requirements. But the good news is that there is a kind of common open standard to run a LLM called LLaMA CCP. Lamma CCP allows you to run a LLM with minimal setup and state-of-the-art performance on a wide variety of hardware – locally and in the cloud. And of course there is also a Python binding available. And this makes is easy to test a LLM in a Docker container.

Continue reading “How to Run LLMs in a Docker Container”

My Git – Cheat Sheet

This is just a short collection of Git commands and tricks which I personally did not always remember.

Create a new Tag

To create and push a new tag:

1.) List current tags

$ git tag

2.) Create a new Tag

$ git tag -a <TAG-VERSION> -m "next release" 

3.) Push tag

By default, the git push command doesn’t transfer tags to remote servers. You will have to explicitly push tags to a shared server after you have created them.

$ git push origin <TAG-VERSION>

Merge a Branch

Merge another branch into the current (e.g. into the master branch)

List all the branches in your local Git repository using the git branch command:

$ git branch

The output shows all branches and marks the current branch with an *.

Ensure you are on the branch you want to merge into. To switch to the master branch:

$ git checkout master

Now you can start merging. Since merging is a type of commit, it also requires a commit message.

$ git merge -m "Your merge commit message" [source_branch]

Check the result in your current file tree.

Finally push your changes:

$ git push origin

Install Open JDK 11 on Debian 12 (Bookworm)

In Debian 12 the default JDK is Java 17. In case you need Java 11 instead you can follow this blog from Linux Shout .

Here is the short version:

1) Edit your sources.list

Edit the file /etc/apt/sources.list and add the unstable packages at the end of the file

deb unstable main non-free contrib

2) Next Update your apt preferences

Edit the file /etc/apt/preferences and add the following entry:

Package: *
Pin: release a=stable
Pin-Priority: 900

Package: *
Pin: release a=unstable
Pin-Priority: 50

This will make our Debian 12 system only choose the stable packages while updating instead of unstable ones.

3) Install JDK 11

Now you can install JDK 11 and switch the java version using the

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install openjdk-11-jdk
$ sudo update-alternatives --config java

The last command allows you to switch between JDK 17 and JDK 11.

How to Use Flameshot in Debian 12 (bookworm)

Flameshot is a nice screen capture tool allowing you to mark a screenshot with lines and text and save the screenshot or copy it into the clipboard.

I uses this tool since years. But on Debian 12 it seems not to work. At least it does not open on my installation.

The trick is to start the program form a terminal window with the option gui

$ flameshot gui

How to Handle JSF Exceptions in Jakarta EE 10

Exception handling is a tedious but necessary job during development of modern web applications. And it’s teh same for Jakarta EE 10. But if you migrate an existing application to the new Jakarta EE 10 things have change a little bit and so it can happen that you old errorHandler does no no longer work. At least this was the case when I migrated Imixs-Office-Workflow to Jakrata EE 10. So in this short tutorial I will briefly explain how to handle JSF Exceptions.

First of all you need an exeptionHandler extending the Jakarta EE10 ExceptionHandlerWrapper class. The implementation can look like this:

import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Objects;

import jakarta.faces.FacesException;
import jakarta.faces.application.NavigationHandler;
import jakarta.faces.context.ExceptionHandler;
import jakarta.faces.context.ExceptionHandlerWrapper;
import jakarta.faces.context.FacesContext;
import jakarta.faces.context.Flash;
import jakarta.faces.event.ExceptionQueuedEvent;
import jakarta.faces.event.ExceptionQueuedEventContext;

public class MyExceptionHandler extends ExceptionHandlerWrapper {

  public MyExceptionHandler(ExceptionHandler wrapped) {

  public void handle() throws FacesException {
    Iterator iterator = getUnhandledExceptionQueuedEvents().iterator();

    while (iterator.hasNext()) {
      ExceptionQueuedEvent event = (ExceptionQueuedEvent);
      ExceptionQueuedEventContext context = (ExceptionQueuedEventContext) event.getSource();

      Throwable throwable = context.getException();

      throwable = findCauseUsingPlainJava(throwable);

      FacesContext fc = FacesContext.getCurrentInstance();

      try {
        Flash flash = fc.getExternalContext().getFlash();
        flash.put("message", throwable.getMessage());
        flash.put("type", throwable.getClass().getSimpleName());
        flash.put("exception", throwable.getClass().getName());

        NavigationHandler navigationHandler = fc.getApplication().getNavigationHandler();

        navigationHandler.handleNavigation(fc, null, "/errorhandler.xhtml?faces-redirect=true");

      } finally {

    // Let the parent handle the rest

   * Helper method to find the exception root cause.
   * See:
  public static Throwable findCauseUsingPlainJava(Throwable throwable) {
    Throwable rootCause = throwable;
    while (rootCause.getCause() != null && rootCause.getCause() != rootCause) {
      System.out.println("cause: " + rootCause.getCause().getMessage());
      rootCause = rootCause.getCause();
    return rootCause;


This wrapper overwrites the default ExceptionHandlerWrapper. In the method handle() (which is the imprtant one) we search the root cause of the exception and put some meta information into the JSF flash scope. The flash is a memory that can be used by the JSF page we redirect to – ‘errorhandler.xhtml’

Next you need to create a custom ExceptionHanlderFactor. This class simple registers our new ExceptionHandler:

import jakarta.faces.context.ExceptionHandler;
import jakarta.faces.context.ExceptionHandlerFactory;

public class MyExceptionHandlerFactory extends ExceptionHandlerFactory {
    public MyExceptionHandlerFactory(ExceptionHandlerFactory wrapped) {

    public ExceptionHandler getExceptionHandler() {
        ExceptionHandler parentHandler = getWrapped().getExceptionHandler();
        return new MyExceptionHandler(parentHandler);


The new Factory method need to be registered in the faces-config.xml file:


And finally we can create a errorhandler.xhtml page that displays a user friendly error message. We can access the flash memory here to display the meta data collected in our ErrorHandler.

<ui:composition xmlns=""
		Display a error message depending on the cause of a exception
	<ui:define name="content">
	  <h:panelGroup styleClass="" layout="block">
				<p><h4>#{flash.keep.type}: #{flash.keep.message}</h4>
		<br />
		<br />
		<strong>Error Code:</strong>
		<br />
		<h:outputText value="#{session.lastAccessedTime}">
			<f:convertDateTime pattern="#{message.dateTimePatternLong}" timeZone="#{message.timeZone}"
							type="date" />
	  <h:commandButton action="home" value="Close"
		immediate="true" />			


That’s it. You can extend and customize this to you own needs.

Why You Shouldn’t Trust IT Consulting Companies

Very large companies often tend to hire very large IT consulting firms to solve their IT problems. Often with moderate success. You can observe this all over the world when you read about failed big IT projects.

So why is this happening? Large IT consulting firms are perfect at telling you that they are the only ones able to solve your problem quickly and reliably. Typically, they also have a real expert who recognizes the problem very well and has an idea of a working solution. You should memorize this person’s face well, because you may never see this expert again. And he probably won’t be the one to solve your problem.

But what exactly is happening here? Why should an international big IT consulting company not be the right expert for your IT problem? To understand this, you simply think about the business model of such companies. It consists of selling you IT services at a fixed daily or hourly rate. This means that the more hours you buy, the better it is for the consulting firm. In order to further maximize profits, these companies are often looking for teams consisting of young enthusiastic university graduates. Typically in a completely different place in the world, where much lower wages are paid. It may be that you are lucky and you find an expert able to solve your problem. But it can also happen that he is confronted with this problem for the first time in his life.

So, now you have an international IT team managed by a large consulting firm and you may continue to have your original IT problem for a very long time. How can you solve this situation in a better way? It’s basically quite simple. Just take a look at the open source community. For every problem in IT, there is someone who deals with it. And if he or she makes the problem public and also publishes his proposed solution, then that’s your IT expert! If the problem is big enough, it may happen that the open source project grows a little. This means that there are now more than one experts able to solve your problem. You will save yourself a lot of money and time if you try to solve your IT problems in this way in the future.

So the biggest problem for you is actually only to find these IT experts in the open source community. However, you should not hire a large IT consulting company to search for such experts. If you’re wondering why – just read this article again from the beginning.

My Visual-Studio Code – Cheat Sheet

This is just a short collection of VSCode commands and tricks which I personally did not know after switching from Eclipse ID.

Install or Update on Debian

To install or update VSCode on Linux Debian just got to the Download page and download the latest .deb package.

Next switch into the download folder and just run

$ sudo apt install ./code_*.deb

If you already have installation an update will be installed.

Open Command Palette

Most things in VSCode can be controlled via the Command Palette:

Press Ctrl + Shift + P


Switch Remote Branch

To switch the remote branch of the current git repo you usually can click on the branch-icon on the lower-left corner:

But this only works if you already have the branch in your local git repo. If this is not the case use the command:

Git: Checkout to...

and select the corresponding remote branch.

Tag and Push via Command Tools

To tag the new release and push the tag to Github open the command palette and use

Git: Create Tag
-> choose your projec
-> enter teh tag name

Next you can push your new local tag to github with the command

Git: Push (Follow Tags)

See also Ralph Git Cheat Sheet

Disable the annoying

To disable to annoying feature that files will only open in a ‘preview’ mode instead each in a new Tab you can disable this featrue in settings:

Clean and Rebuild Java Projects

In some situations it may be helpful to rebuild all Java projects in your workspace

Java: Clean Java Language Server Workspace

Debug Jakarta EE Server

To use the Java Debugger to debug your code running in a Jakarta EE (or any Web Server) you need to create a so called launch-configuration first. Create or edit the project file .vscode/launch.json and add a configuration pointing to your remote server and project. The following example shows a configuration for Wildfyl in a project called ‘my-jakarta-app’

  // Wildfly Debug Configuration
  "configurations": [
      "type": "java",
      "name": "Debug my-jakarta-app",
      "request": "attach",
      "hostName": "localhost",
      "port": "8787",
      "projectName": "my-jakarta-app"

After creating the debug configuration you can launch the debugger:

Note: It is important that you enter the correct ‘projectName‘. If not, the debugger will not detect your sources correctly. You can see that the debug configuration is correct when the debug console print out something.


Maybe it’s me who just gets too old, but I customize some appearance setting in vs-code to be able to work faster.

  • changing the ‘Tree indent’ in the Workbench Appearance from 8 to 16

SSH Key – Github Pull hangs…

In case you run into a scenario that your build-in git pull command within VSCode hangs forever, this may be an issue related to the ssh-agent (find background here).

You can test if yoru ssh-agent is running (which is necessary for VSCode) by checking the following command in a terminal:

$ ssh-add -l
The agent has no identities.

The result here shows, that not SSH IDs are available and this causes the hang in VSCode.

To solve such a situation, you can open a Terminal and enter

$ eval `ssh-agent`
$ ssh-add

This will promt you for the password of your ssh private key and register the ssh-agent with the SSH id. Now you can start VSCode:

$ code

This way VSCode will inherit the environment variables it needs to get key services from ssh-agent, and therefore will not prompt for your passphrase so long as the ssh-agent process continues running.

To automate this you can add the following script into your ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile file:

if [ -z "$SSH_AUTH_SOCK" ]; then
   # Check for a currently running instance of the agent
   RUNNING_AGENT="`ps -ax | grep 'ssh-agent -s' | grep -v grep | wc -l | tr -d '[:space:]'`"
   if [ "$RUNNING_AGENT" = "0" ]; then
        # Launch a new instance of the agent
        ssh-agent -s &> .ssh/ssh-agent
   eval `cat .ssh/ssh-agent`

Find details also here.

Compare .bpmn files with Text-Diff Editor

To compare different versions of .bpmn files in the text-diff editor, you can overwrite the editorAssociations in the workbench settings.

  1. Open Settings ( Ctrl + , ) and search for editorAssociations
  2. You will see the .bpmn associatisons where you can add a new option for Git:’

Item = {git,gitlens}:/**/*.{bpmn,bpmn2}
Value = default

Now BPMN files will always be opened in a git file compare with text editor per default

Java Language Support – Redhat

The RedHat Java Language Support may cause problems on startup – the build task hangs. To solve this you can try to edit the java settings:

-> go to Setting and type and click Edit in settings.json.

Now you can edit the settigns file. Try to add the following Lines:

    "": "-Xlog:jni+resolve=off",
    "java.debug.settings.vmArgs": "-Xlog:jni+resolve=off",
    "": false

Fix Eclipse

Eclipse is an IDE providing a lot of tools to develop software in various languages. Installing Eclipse is just download the latest version and unzipping it somewhere in your home folder.

But Eclipse comes with some non optimal default settings. So it’s better to fix these settings before you start coding.

Change the Memory Settings

First open the eclipse.ini file located in your install folder. You will find the following memory settings:


This settings are typical to low if you have 8G or more memory available in your notebook. So double both values first:


Change the Workspace Settings

After your launched Eclipse you should change some other default settings in the preference dialog. Open Window -> Preferences and change the following defaults:

General -> Workspace: change the ‘Text file encoding’ to UTF-8

General -> Workspace : change ‘New Text file line delimiter’ to Unix

HTML Single Page Layout – Simple, Easy, Fast

You all know the Single Page Layout of HTML pages. It means you have mainly only one page loaded. The page splits up the layout into different sections to get a clear and modern page design. There are a lot of web sites explaining this kind of modern web design and you can find hundreds of templates on different places like I also picked up such a design template to build a new site. As always the template is not perfect and you want to tweak it a little bit, to get your own individual style. After I looked into the CSS file and the layout setup, I was shocked. The CSS consisted of more then 2400 lines of code! And each HTML tag was applied with more than 5 style classes in average. For example a simple section within a 2-column layout looked something like this:

    <section class="bg-white dark:bg-gray-900">
        <div class="max-w-screen-xl px-4 pb-8 mx-auto lg:pb-16">                
        <h2 class="mb-4 text-3xl font-extrabold tracking-tight text-gray-900 dark:text-white">100% Open Source</h2>
            <div class="grid grid-cols-2 gap-8 text-gray-500 sm:gap-12 sm:grid-cols-3 lg:grid-cols-6 dark:text-gray-400">

So I asked my self: is this complexity needed? You may guess it – my answer is ‘no’. Now let me explain what is needed for a simple single page layout.

The Grid Layout

To design a good-looking website, you need to follow the principle of the golden ratio. This principle was discovered by Leonardo Da Vinci 500 years ago and is nothing new. To make it short: you split up your page into 12 columns and place the elements inside. For example to get an 2/3 ratio you place one block into columns 1-4 and the rest into 5-12.

Often this is archived with defining a lot col-classes for each ratio like this:

.col-1 {width: 8.33%;}
.col-2 {width: 16.66%;}
.col-3 {width: 25%;}
.col-4 {width: 33.33%;}
.col-5 {width: 41.66%;}
.col-6 {width: 50%;}
.col-7 {width: 58.33%;}
.col-8 {width: 66.66%;}
.col-9 {width: 75%;}
.col-10 {width: 83.33%;}
.col-11 {width: 91.66%;}
.col-12 {width: 100%;}

You my see this kind of css classes in many many layouts. But you don’t need this as you can use the grid design rule supported today by all modern browsers.

To use the grid layout you simply define your container class as a grid with 12 columns. The browser overtakes the column layout for you. See the following example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
.container {
  max-width: 1280px;
  border: 1px dashed;
  padding: 10px;
  margin-left: auto;
  margin-right: auto;

  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(12, minmax(69px, 110px));
  <section class="container">
    <div style="grid-column-start: span 4; border: 1px solid green;">
      <p>The left column with some text...</p>

    <div style="grid-column-start: span 8; border: 1px solid blue;">
      <p>The right column.....</p>

The important part here is the style class for the section defining a grid with 12 columns

  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(12, minmax(64px, 110px));

If you inspect the page with your browsers developer tools, you can see that the section is divided into 12 parts like Leonardo Da Vinci would do it.

So this is quite simple. And I do not use any css classes for my column sections. It is quite enough if you set the grid-column-start directly in the style attribute.

<div style="grid-column-start: span 4;">

Get Responsive

Finally you may want to get more responsive. My first example has a minimal width of 768px as each column is defined with a minim width of 64px. In small displays this is not perfect. So lets define a responsive design to cancel out 12 column ration if the display is smaller then 768 px. This can be done with a @meia definition:

@media (max-width: 768px) {
  .container {
     grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fit, minmax(280px, 1fr));

This code creates a flexible “auto-responsive” grid in which elements are always at least 280 pixels wide. But now, the grid automatically reduces the number of columns as soon as the width falls below 280 pixels.

So we simply changed from 12 columns to responsive design. Thant’s it.